For measurements with suspensions using 10 x 10 mm fluorescence cuvettes, we provide a black aluminum unit (ED-101US/MD). The unit holds the fluorescence cuvette in its center and has four light ports to connect standard measuring heads of the DUAL-PAM-100 or alternative fluorescence detectors. A two-part black cover of the cuvette compartment with syringe port is provided.
To combine chlorophyll fluorescence and P700 measurements with gas exchange measurements using the Walz GFS-3000 gas exchange system, we have developed the DUAL-PAM-100 gas-exchange cuvette (3010-DUAL).
Exact light measurements in suspensions (but also in air) can be carried out by the spherical micro quantum sensor (US-SQS/WB). The sensor has a small, 3.7 mm diameter sphere as the entrance optics. When the sensor is connected to the DUAL-PAM-100 control unit (DUAL-C), temperature data will be acquired and processed by the DualPAM software.
For measurements of leaves or suspensions using the low-drift accessory for DUAL-K25. Employing a high-quality rack and pinion drive, the system adjusts precisely and smoothly the distance between two measuring heads, for example, measuring heads DUAL-DB(-DR) and DUAL-E, or measuring heads DUAL-DP515 and DUAL-EP515.
Settling of particles is prevented by using a miniature magnetic stirrer (US-MS). The stirrer is mounted directly beneath the sample cuvette. A rotating magnetic field created by the stirrer tip moves a miniature magnetic stir bar in the cuvette. The stirrer is connected to the DUAL-PAM-100 control unit (DUAL-C). Stirring can be switched on and off by the DualPAM software.
The DUAL-DPD is used when fluorescence levels of suspensions are too low to be accurately detected by the DUAL-DB or DUAL-DR heads. Compared to the two latter units, the DUAL-DPD detector is about tenfold more sensitive permitting measurements down to concentrations of 5 µg Chl/L using the blue modulated excitation light of the DUAL-DB head. Normally, the DUAL-DPD is mounted on the ED-101US/MD optical compartment right-angled to the DUAL-DB or DUAL-DR head.
The US-T unit consists of a heat-transfer head with a cooling/heating Peltier element, and a separate power-and-control unit. The heat-transfer head is mounted on top of a Walz optical unit (ED-101US-type) so that the dip of the rod is in touch with the suspension investigated. The achievable temperature spread in suspensions is about 30 K; absolute temperatures depend on ambient temperature.
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The outstanding sensitivity of the photomultiplier DUAL-DPM exceeds the performance of the DUAL-DPD photodiode. Using the DUAL-DPM in conjunction with the DUAL-DB unit, which provides blue modulated for fluorescence excitation, allows reliable measurements of suspensions with chlorophyll concentrations down to 0.5 µg/L. Like the DUAL-DPD photodiode, the DUAL-DPM is mounted on the ED-101US/MD optical compartment right-angled to the DUAL-DB or DUAL-DR head.
For measurements under defined temperatures, a temperature control block (ED- 101US/T) can be mounted on the optical unit (ED-101US/MD). The block consists of an inner flow-trough metal part which is slightly pressed on the sample cuvette by a spring mechanism, and an external foam part for temperature insulation. Temperature control is achieved by an external flow-through water bath (not included) connected to the temperature block.
When leaf samples are smaller than the crossectional area of the measuring beam, the measuring light bypassing the leaf diminishes the P700 signal quality. To prevent the negative effects of bypassing measuring light, we offer a set of optical pinholes (DUAL-OP) to adjust the crossectional area of the measuring beam to the sample area.
By employing a vertical optical pathway the DUAL-K25 quartz glass cuvette reduces baseline drifts caused by particle settling in suspensions of isolated chloroplasts, unicellular algae and cyanobacteria.
Usually, the MODULAR version of the DUAL-PAM-100 illuminates the sample from two sides. When one-sided illumination is needed, the P700 emitter
DUAL-E is connected via the adapter DUAL-TW to the Power-and-Control-Unit DUAL-C.