Standard Components


The MICROSCOPY-PAM system uses a Zeiss AxioScope.A1 epifluorescence microscope. By default, the microscope is equipped with a wide-aperture Zeiss Fluar objective with 20-fold magnification. Standard light source for fluorescence excitation is the blue Zeiss LED-Modul 470 nm.

A special pulse modulation regime permits the use if the same LED module as source for measuring and actinic light as well as for saturation pulses. The use of other Zeiss LED modules emitting at different wavelengths in the UV-A and visible spectral range will be considered on customer request.


Chlorophyll fluorescence is detected by a photomultiplier mounted on a special detector-ocular of the microscope. The ocular is equipped with an iris diaphragm with which the field of view can be narrowed down. A special dichroic beamsplitter filterset serves for effective separation of broadband fluorescence emission (λ>650 nm).

Fluorescence excitation and detection are controlled by the PAM-CONTROL unit which allows stand-alone operation of the MICROSCOPY-PAM but can also function as a physical interface for computer-controlled operation of the system.

The PAM-CONTROL unit is delivered with WinControl V.2-Software for operation by Windows computers, an RS 232 cable, a USB-RS 232 adapter (in case that an RS-232 port is not available), a charger MINI-PAM/L, a cable to connect a chart recorder and a transport box.