Introduction

Chl Fluorescence & P700 Absorbance

Since the introduction of our first chlorophyll fluorometer in 1985, PAM fluorometers manufactured by the Heinz Walz GmbH have become a standard in basic and applied photosynthesis research.

Walz PAM fluorometers have contributed decisively to progress in photosynthesis research as well as plant eco- and stress-physiology. These contributions are documented in countless publications in numerous scientific journals and books.

All these instruments employ the “Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation” (PAM) measuring principle, which is unique in providing a highly selective measure of the relative chlorophyll fluorescence quantum yield. In conjunction with the “Saturation Pulse Method”, PAM fluorometers allow rapid assessment of photosynthetic energy conversion, wherever this takes place, in the field, greenhouse or laboratory.

The most recent members of the PAM family, the MICRO-PAM and the DUAL-KLAS-NIR, continue the development of extremely powerful instruments which are either focusing on the elementary processes of primary photosynthesis or on ecophysiology of photosynthesis.

The MICRO-PAM shares its capacity for multi-site monitoring in the field with the established MONITORING-PAM but is more compact and energy-efficient. The DUAL-KLAS-NIR is related to the DUAL-PAM-100 system which measures PS II and PS I activities in parallel. The new DUAL-KLAS-NIR does not only evaluate PS I but in addition its electron donor, plastocyanin, and its electron acceptor, ferredoxin.

The MULTI-COLOR-PAM and PHYTO-PAM-II fluorometers employ the latest chip-on-board (COB) technology which enables the study of the wavelength-dependence of photosynthetic processes and functional absorption cross-section of PS II.

The 3D IMAGING-PAM represents a novel way of plant phenotyping by providing insights on PS II quantum yield on a three-dimensional level in combination with morphological parameters.

The newly designed MINI-PAM-II and DIVING-PAM-II continue the success of Walz field fluorometers on a fully digital basis.

Systems