Outstanding Technical Features


DUAL-KLAS NIR instruments can measure in 1, 2 or 6 channel mode, with time resolutions of 35 µs, 150 µs and 1 ms, respectively.

The pulse modulation technique developed for the DUAL-PAM-100, in which the different channels are measured as blocks of 50 µs has been extended for the DUAL-KLAS-NIR to accommodate 6 channel measurements (see Fig. 2).

The DUAL-KLAS-NIR uses green measuring light for the fluorescence measurements to get the best possible match between fluorescence and absorbance measurements. A second fluorescence channel detects the fluorescence induced by blue measuring light. The blue measuring light gives more specific information on the upper or lower side of the leaf and in addition gives a fluorescence signal that is one order of magnitude larger than the signal induced by the green measuring light.

Other Distinctive Features of the DUAL-KLAS-NIR

Integrated red, blue, far-red actinic LEDs, whereby the 635 nm red LED-array is used as the light source for continuous actinic light, multiple turnover pulses and single turnover flashes. The blue 460 nm LED in the detector unit allows a continuous illumination with 300 µmol m-2 s-1 from the detector side of the sample.

The measurement of four wavelength pairs in the near-infrared: 785-820, 820-870, 870-950, 840-950 nm.

Both sides of the leaf can be illuminated to achieve the most homogeneous illumination of the leaf possible.

An extremely wide range of measuring light frequencies (1 Hz to 400 kHz allows continuous assessment of the FO level as well as recording of fast kinetic transients at high time resolution (e.g. the polyphasic fluorescence rise or flash relaxation kinetics).

All light sources can be switched with 2.5 µs time resolution under software control. If single channel measurements are made, a script is available with which the different signals can be measured consecutively at high time resolution.

Other important technical features are: 1. Automated Slow Kinetics recordings; 2 pre-programmed Triggered Runs; 3. on-line and off-line averaging; 4. Operation of the instrument via automated measuring routines (script file programming).