Introduction

Chl Fluorescence & P700 Absorbance

Since the introduction of our first chlorophyll fluorometer in 1985, PAM fluorometers manufactured by the Heinz Walz GmbH have become a standard in basic and applied photosynthesis research.

Walz PAM fluorometers have contributed decisively to progress in photosynthesis research as well as plant eco- and stress-physiology. These contributions are documented in countless publications in numerous scientific journals and books.

All these instruments employ the “Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation” (PAM) measuring principle, which is unique in providing a highly selective measure of the relative chlorophyll fluorescence quantum yield. In conjunction with the “Saturation Pulse Method”, PAM fluorometers allow rapid assessment of photosynthetic energy conversion, wherever this takes place, in the field, greenhouse or laboratory.

The recent members of the PAM family, the DUAL-PAM-100 system, the MULTI-COLOR-PAM and PHYTO-PAM-II fluorometers, and the 3D Version of the IMAGING-PAM M-Series stand for the beginning of a new generation of extremely powerful instruments.

The DUAL-PAM-100 system provides a second signal channel for measuring other photosynthesis parameters (like P700, P515 or NADPH) in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence.

The MULTI-COLOR-PAM and the PHYTO-PAM-II employ advanced chip-on-board technology to study the wavelength-dependence of photosynthetic processes and functional absorption cross-section of PS II.

The 3D IMAGING-PAM represents a novel way of plant phenotyping by providing insights on PAM fluorescence on a three-dimensional level in combination with morphological parameters.

Systems