The new 3D version of IMAGING-PAM is particularly suited for precise measurements of whole above-ground parts of sample plants. It measures exactly leaf heights and provides a clear numerical description of single leaves (size, shape, angle, balance point) and entire plants (rosette radius, surface area and number of leaves).
For different applications the MAXI, MINI and MICROSCOPY versions are available in various configurations differing in optical geometries and excitation wavelengths. While blue excitation light is normally used for fluorescence imaging of higher plants and algae, red-orange excitation is required for cyanobacteria.
Measuring heads can also be equipped with special LEDs and filter sets for imaging fluorescence from reporter molecules like GFP. The use of power LEDs allows actinic intensities of up to 5000 μmol m-2 s-1 (depending on the M-Series member and configuration).
For the measurement of suspensions additional filter plates are available enhancing the image quality even with reflective surfaces. For PSII measurements under ambient light conditions also the communication with our Universal Light Meter ULM-500 is possible, so that real time light values directly can be taken over to the IMAGING-PAM report file.
For extended analysis options system combination adapters are available facilitating imaging under climate control and combined with gas exchange analysis.